Saturday, September 12, 2009

भारतीय सचिवको नेपाल भ्रमण किन ?





सुजित मैनाली

नवनियुक्त भारतीय विदेशसचिव निरुपमा राय आगामी साता नेपाल भ्रमणका लागि काठमाडौं आउने भएकी छिन् । लैनचौरको एकल अग्रसरतामा हुन गइरहेको भनिएको यस भ्रमणलाई क्षेत्रीय अर्थराजनीतिमा देखिएको नयाँ जटिलताका आधारमा नियाल्ने हो भने रायको भ्रमणले विविध संवेदनशील सन्देश बोकेको आँकलन सजिलै गर्न सकिन्छ ।

'बिन बुलाये मेहेमान' साधारण जनव्यवहारमा भन्दा ज्यादा कूटनीतिमा असभ्य मानिन्छ । पूर्वप्रधानमन्त्री पुष्पकमल दाहाल 'प्रचण्ड'ले पदबाट राजीनामा दिएपछि एक भारतीय साचारमाध्यमसँगको अन्तर्वार्तामा चीनसँग माओवादीको अन्तरंग बढिरहेको भन्ने नयाँदिल्लीको विश्लेषणको खण्डन गर्दै आफ्नो नौमहिने कार्यकालमा नेपाल आएका कुनै पनि चिनियाँ प्रतिनिधिमण्डललाई आफूले नबोलाएको र उनीहरुको भ्रमणको सम्पूर्ण चाँजोपाँजो बेइजिङ आफंैले मिलाएको बताएर न्यूनतम कूटनीतिक मर्यादाको खिल्ली उडाएका थिए ।

ठूलै आपत् नपरी निमन्त्रणाबिना कुनै पनि राष्ट्रको प्रतिनिधिले मित्रराष्ट्रको राजकीय भ्रमण गर्दैन । काठमाडौंको निम्तोबिनै करिब एक दर्जन प्रतिनिधिमण्डल पठाउन बेइजिङले प्रदर्शन गरेको व्यग्रताले नेपालको राजनीतिक परिवर्तनबाट उसले आफूलाई कति असुरक्षित महसुस गरेको रैछ यसको अनुमान सजिलै लगाउन सकिन्छ ।

माओवादी सरकार ढलेयता नेपालको आन्तरिक र बाह्य राजनीतिमा थुप्रै फेरबदल भइसकेको छ । नेपालभित्र भारतविरोधी मानसिकता चुलिँदैछ भने क्षेत्रीय राजनीति प्रत्यक्ष विवादतर्फ उन्मुख छ । यसका अलावा वामपन्थी र दक्षिणपन्थीबीचको कथित ध्रुवीकरणका नाममा नेपालका दलहरु चिनियाँ र भारतीय खेमामा विभाजित हुन थालेका छन् । अरुणाचल प्रदेश र लद्दाखका विवादित भूमिमा चीन र भारत दुवैले बढाउन थालेको सैन्य सक्र्यियतासम्बन्धी समाचार र विश्लेषणले दुवैतर्फका साचारमाध्यमहरु तरंगित हुन थालेका छन् । हिन्द तथा अरवियन महासागरका अलावा दक्षिण एसियाको हिमाली भूभागमा चीन र भारतको बढ्दो हानथापले क्षेत्रीय राजनीतिलाई थप जटिल बनाउँदै लगेको छ ।

कुनै पनि राष्ट्रको अर्थतन्त्र र सैन्य क्षमताले अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय राजनीतिमा उसको हैसियत निर्धारण गर्दछ । सबैभन्दा ज्यादा वैदेशिक विनिमय सन्चिती एकत्रित गर्न सफल राष्ट्र चीनले जारी विश्वव्यापी आर्थिक मन्दीका बीच आफ्नो यसै क्षमताको सहायताले अमेरिकालाई तत्काल 'साइज'मा राख्न सफल भएको छ । चीनसँगको अमेरिकाको यस्तो बाध्यात्मक बन्धनका कारण जारी चीन-भारत सीमा विवादप्रति अमेरिकाले कुनै प्रतिक्रिया जनाएको छैन ।

चीनको कुल वार्षिक रक्षा खर्च भारतको भन्दा करिब तीन गुनाले बढी छ । यी र यस्ता विविध कारणहरुले चीनबाट आफूलाई असुरक्षित महसुस गरिरहेको नयाँदिल्लीले नेपालमा समेत आफ्नो प्रभाव विस्तार गर्ने छाँटकाँट बेइजिङले देखाएपछि आफूलाई थप एक्लो र असुरक्षित पाएको छ ।

नेपाल आफ्नो नियन्त्रणबाहिर नजाओस् र इण्डो-गंगेटिक भूभागको समग्र सुरक्षामा महत्वपूर्ण प्रभाव पार्ने रणनीतिक महत्वको यस भूमिलाई आधार बनाई खासगरी चीनले आफूमाथि समस्या सिर्जना गर्न नसकोस् भन्ने नेपालप्रतिको भारतको एकसूत्रीय चासो हो । काठमाडौंको निमन्त्रणाबिना भारतीय विदेशसचिव रायले गर्न लागेको नेपाल भ्रमणलाई आफ्नो सोही चासो धमिलिन नदिन भारतले प्रदर्शन गरेको व्यग्रताको प्रतिबिम्ब मान्न सकिन्छ ।

विदेश सचिवमा पदोन्नति हुनुअघि राय चीनका लागि भारतीय राजदूतका रुपमा कार्यरत थिइन् । त्यसैले दक्षिण एसियामा चीनको बहुआयामिक रुचिबारे अन्य भारतीय रणनीतिकारको भन्दा उनको बुझाइ गहिरो छ । अफ्रीका ,ल्याटिन अमेरिका तथा इस्लामी राष्ट्रमा अमेरिकालाई चुनौती दिन सक्ने क्षमता बनाइसकेको चीनले दक्षिण एसियाको सामरिक तथा आर्थिक सम्भावनातर्फ आफ्नो ध्यान केन्द्रित गरेको छ । अब हिमालयको अवरोधले मात्र दक्षिण एसियामा चीनको प्रभाव विस्तारलाई रोक्न सक्दैन । बर्मा, पाकिस्तान, बंगलादेश र श्रीलंकामा रणनीतिक बन्दरगाह निर्माण गरी चीनले हिन्द तथा अरेवियन महासागरमा आफ्नो पकड दह्रो बनाउने र दक्षिण एसियाली राष्ट्रहरुको सहयोगमार्फत् भारतलाई घेराबन्दीमा पार्ने कार्य गरिसकेको छ ।

आफूसँग सीमा जोडिएका १४ राष्ट्रहरुमध्ये रुस, पाकिस्तानजस्ता परमाणुसम्पन्न राष्ट्रका अलावा नेपाल र भुटानजस्ता स-साना राष्ट्रसँग समेत चीनले सीमाविवाद करिब-करिब सुल्झाइसकेको छ । तर भारतसँगको सीमा विवाद टुंग्याउने दिशातर्फ उसले कुनै अग्रसरता देखाएको छैन । चीनको शक्ति विस्तार जारी रहेकाले भविष्यमा आफ्नो विश्वव्यापी प्रभाव थप मौलाउने र यसबाट भारतसँग सीमा विवाद मिलाउँदा आफ्नो बार्गेनिङ पाव अहिलेको भन्दा बढ्ने चिनियाँ संस्थापनको विश्लेषण छ । त्यसैले भारतसँगको विवाद जारी रहन दिनुलाइ चीनले अहिलेको रणनीति बनाएको छ ।

नेपाली राजनीतिमा निश्चय पनि भारत हावी छ । तर चीनले नेपालमा बढाउन खोजेको सक्र्यिताबाट आफ्नो बृहत्तर क्षेत्रीय स्वार्थमा धक्का लाग्नेप्रति भारतीयहरु भयभीत छन् । भारतीय लवीको प्रत्यक्ष प्रतिनिधित्व गर्ने माधवकुमार नेपाल र सुजाता कोइरालाको जोडी सत्तामा हुँदासमेत नेपालमा भारतले आफूलाई सुरक्षित महसुस गर्न सकेको छैन । वर्तमान नेपाली नेतृत्वलाई चीनले आफ्नो एजेण्डामा तान्न गरिरहेको प्रयासले भारतलाई चिन्तित तुल्याएको छ ।

चीन भ्रमणमा रहेकी परराष्ट्रमन्त्री सुजाता कोइरालासँग सुरक्षा समन्वयका लागि चीनले आग्रह गरेको छ । साथै खुला वाणिज्य नीति अपनाउन उसले काठमाडौंलाई कूटनीतिक दबाब दिइरहेको चर्चा समेत चल्न थालेको छ । खुला वाणिज्य नीतिमार्फत् नेपालको निर्माण क्षेत्रमा चीनले फाल हाल्न खोजेको र यसबाट नेपालसँग जोडिएको भारतीय भूभागसम्म चिनिया प्रविधिको रेल र सडक सन्जाल विस्तार गराउन उसले आफ्नो ध्यान केन्द्रित गरेको बताइएको छ । तिब्बतसँग जोडिएको भारतीय भूभागसम्म चीनले रेलमार्ग विस्तार गरिसकेको छ । चीनका विभिन्न क्षेत्रबाट एक दिनभित्रमा ५० हजारभन्दा बढी चिनियाँ जनमुक्ति सेनालाई तिब्बतमा ओरालेर भारतसँगको सीमावर्ती क्षेत्रमा आफूले हासिल गरेको अभूतपूर्व सफलताबारे भारतलाई जानकार गराई उसलाई तसा्रउने नीति चीनले अवलम्बन गरेको प्रष्ट छ । त्यसैले नेपालसँगको भारतको सीमावर्ती क्षेत्रसम्म चीनले बढाउन खोजेको रेलमार्ग र सडक साजाललाई भारतले सशंकित ढंगले नियालेको छ ।

चिनियाँ कम्युनिष्ट पार्टीका पोलिटब्युरो सदस्य झाङ गोलीलाई हालै नेपाल पठाएर चीनले नेपालमा जुनसुकै पार्टीको सरकार बने पनि आफ्नो चासो नघट्ने प्रष्ट संकेत दिएको छ । नेपाल भ्रमणका क्रममा प्रचण्ड र झलनाथ खनालजस्ता चीनप्रति नरमभाव राख्ने नेताहरुसँगको भेटघाटलाई प्राथमिकता दिएर झाङले चीनको नेपालप्रतिको अटल रुचि प्रदर्शन गरेका छन् ।

अहिलेको नेपालको राजनीतिक जटिलताले भारतलाई थप तनाव दिएको छ । सत्तारुढ दलभित्रको असन्तुष्टिका बीच अहिले नेपालको शक्ति समीकरणमा झिनो फेरबदल आएको खण्डमा चीनप्रति नरम भाव राख्नेहरु सिंहदरबारमा विराजमान हुनेछन् । भारतको सबैभन्दा ठूलो टाउको दुखाइ यही हो ।

त्यसमाथि प्रधानमन्त्री माधवकुमार नेपाल चीन भ्रमणका लागि बेइजिङ जाँदैछन् । कूटनीतिक सन्तुलनका लागि नेपालले चीन र भारत दुवैसँग सुपुर्दगी सन्धिमा हस्ताक्षर गर्ने मनस्थिति बनाएको रिपोर्टहरु सन्चारजगतमा आइसकेका छन् । चीनले नेपालमा आफू बराबरको हैसियत हासिल गरेको भारत कुनै पनि हालतमा हेर्न चाहँदैन । प्रधानमन्त्री माधवकुमार नेपालको चीन भ्रमणका क्रममा यसअघि माओवादी नेतृत्वको सरकारका पालामा थाती रहेको नेपाल-चीन शान्ति तथा मैत्री सन्धिको विषयलाई चीनले पुनः सतहमा ल्याउने त हैन भन्नेप्रति भारत अत्यन्त सचेत छ । त्यसैले विदेशसचिव रायको यसपटकको नेपाल भ्रमणमा सुपुर्दगी सन्धि सीमा नक्सामा हस्ताक्षर नेपालमार्फत् हुने जाली नोटको कारोबारजस्ता झिनामसिना विषयहरुले प्रमुखता पाउने छैनन् । दक्षिण एसियामा चीनको पदार्पणलाई रोक्ने भारतको बृहत्तर चिन्ता उनको भ्रमण अवधिमा प्रदर्शित हुनेछ ।

By Sujit Mainali
Kathmandu

Sunday, September 6, 2009

Geopolitical Dimension of Nepal-China Relation



By Sujit Mainali

Age old Nepal-China relation has gathered both cordial and catastrophic experience. Their lust to harness maximum benefit from geopolitics of Tibet had leaded them towards direct confrontation in different phase of the history. However, mutual respect towards one other's sovereignty has maintained warmer relation among them till now.

Both Nepal and China witnessed horrifying state of intervention from external forces. China was sucked and raped by the then imperialist like Japan, Britain, etc. Nepal could do nothing to help its northern neighbor to overcome from such historical adversity. Similarly, Nepal fought two years long war with British Colony in India (East India Company) to safeguard her territory. For the protection of mutual interest, Nepal continuously pleaded support from China and France. But the latter's reluctance to help Nepal at the time of trouble made Nepal geopolitically weak. Nepal lost one third of its territory enabling East India Company to extend its perceived sphere of influence up to the Himalayan region. Nepal and China observed each other's grief but did not take initiative for relief. This was a historical blunder committed by rulers of both countries.

Now, the changing geopolitical upheaval has compelled Nepal and China to review their past and formulate new strategy for the protection of mutual interest. The US-India alliance has begun to demonstrate its influence from Afghanistan, Indonesia, even up to the Africa. Security and military issue associated with this alliance has cautioned countries like China and Pakistan and has encouraged them to hasten their multilateral diplomacy.

India's longstanding lust to snatch geopolitical strength of the Himalayan region is coming to the surface. The increasing overt role of India in geopolitically significant Himalayan countries like Nepal and Bhutan and its apparent involvement in region adjoining China like Tibet, Ladakh, Arunachal Pradesh (South Tibet) and Kashmir has rose serious question in the sustainability of Chinese long-term interest in this region.

In the name of self-defense, India has begun to expedite building military infrastructure in the above Himalayan region. Self-sponsored propaganda of military confrontation with China in 2012 has become a tool for India to militarize those vulnerable and debated zones. Raising the number of troops in Arunachal Pradesh and Kashmir and expediting the build up of defense infrastructure and military bases in Ladakh, Arunachal Pradesh (South Tibet), Kashmir, Sikkim, and even in Bhutan, has exhibited India's inner desire to rise as a sole power in this region.

Of late, India's aggressiveness towards Nepal is being immensely apparent. Demographic invasion from south, if not checked, will convert Nepal into Fiji within a decade. India has achieved marvelous ability to form and depose any regime in Nepal.

Geopolitics of Nepal is linked to the stability and prosperity of China and vice versa. Therefore, China should be conscious of India's grand design to destabilize Nepal, which of not checked, will eventually invite greater political havoc in China as well.


China is an ever trusted northern neighbor of Nepal. With the help of its perceived sensitivity towards Nepal, Nepal is being able to resist southern threat. Similarly, Nepal has also contributed for the stability and territorial integrity of China. To be more precise, Nepal has remained as a wall of China's most vulnerable southern frontier.


For the westerners and India to destabilize Tibet; Mustang district of Nepal, which is behind the Himalaya, is a heavenly place. Khampa Rebel, who were equipped by Central Intellegence Agency (CIA) of US and Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) of India to foster "Free Tibet Movement" from Mustang were suppressed by joint military operation organized by Nepal and China in B.S 2032. Apart from this, Nepal is continuously assuring China towards its firm "One China Policy."

If China goes in direct confrontation with India, Nepal's land will not be suitable for China to invade over India. But India can use Nepal's land for dual purpose: to invade China and to destabilize its autonomous regions Tibet. For the second purpose, India is trying to use Madesh based party. Recent met of Nepalese lawmakers from leading Madesh based party with Dalai Lama in Dharmasala of Himanchal Pradesh, India and their assurance to rise issue of "Free Tibet" in Nepal's parliament exhibits India's subsequent success in this purpose.

For the first purpose, India is willing to build airstrip in western Nepal, Surkhet to supply logistic for the Indian troops deployed in the Kalapani, Nepal. Kalapani is a triangular juncture between Nepal, India and China which warfare significance was realized after 1962 Sino-India war. Defeated Indian troops, when pushed back by Chinese Army, unknowingly entered into Kalapani and were shocked by its strategic altitude. This place holds greater potential to confront and attack China. Undermining the sovereignty of Nepal, India illegally occupied it. India is on the way to further militarize this region. When Nepal's former Defense Minister Ram Bahadur Badal alias Badal offered China to be included to resolve Kalapani dispute, India's former Foreign Minister Pranaab Mukherjee suddenly rushed to Kathmandu and denied Nepal's proposition. With the perceived threat of China-India military clash, India is on the way to militarize Kalapani.

Further, India is vigorously getting involved to monopolize Nepal's resources for gaining strategic and economic supremacy in the region. Abundance water resources of Nepal can fulfill economic and strategic thirst of the India. India is on the way to use Nepal's river with potential of more than 83,000 megawatt electricity to irrigate its desertfying land.

In the name of installing Hydro Electricity plant in high altitude place of Nepal, India is accused for spying southern frontiers of China by a section of Nepalese media. India's aggressiveness to grab Hydro Electricity Plant of Nepal's high hilly region support such accusation. For example, Aryn-3 hydroelectricity project lies in the Sankhuasawa District of Nepal which adjoined Tibet. The project site of Arun-3 is about 80 km far from Tibet, whose aeronautic distance is only of about 12-15 minute long. A traditional trade route between Nepal and Tibet i.e., Kimanthanka lay in this region. It is highly accused that India is intending to use Arun-3 project for military calculation and also to create social upheaval in Tibet with the help of this route.

Tibetan cities like Sigatse and Sikarjong are near to the Sankhuasawa district. Similarly, newly built road network in Tibet has enhanced geopolitical proximity with Lasha and Nepal. India can use Sankhuasawa district as a base for its mission to export instability in Tibet, via Kimanthanka route.

Kimanthanka trade route, which remains open throughout the year, is a potential corridor for China to develop commercial linkage with Northeast India, Calcutta and Bangladesh via eastern Nepal. Nepal's rise as a transit point between two Asian giant will enhance its overall interest which is in favor of China as well. Similarly, China can have an access to highly populated market of India, Bangladesh and even Nepal. Cheep and mass production technique of China can easily capture those markets, which in meantime will ruin India's economic dominance in these regions. The continuous interest exhibited by Chinese authorities to build Kimanthanka route and hurdle posed by India in this project proves greater significance of this route. In the name of operating Arun-3 hydro project, India intends to check Chinese influence in this route.

A stable and prosperous Nepal is necessary for China to preserve its interest in the region. Indo-US alliance is on its way to create social disorder in Nepal to encircle and penetrate China. China can resist their effort by cooperating with nationalist force that enjoys silent majority in Nepal. China should realize that only a stable Nepal can ensure stability in Tibet.

India is overtly and covertly supporting "Free Tibet Movement". In this context, China can seek help of Nepal to tame India if it denies halting its involvement in "Free Tibet Movement". A small support of Nepal can enable China to pose threat to India's regime in Northeast India. Nepal, if desired, can easily chock up vulnerable Siliguri Corridor of West Bangal, disabling India to maintain land contact with entire Northeast India.

Apart from this, several common interests exist in between Nepal and China. Therefore, cooperation among them is necessary for bilateral and multilateral benefit in this region.

Author is a Kathmandu based journalist. E-mail- sujit_mainali@yahoo.com

Published on : Kashmir Watch, Sep 6, 2009

Free Tibet: Play of Diverse Interest

Nepal's Perspective

By Sujit Mainali

Strengthening military and economic standing is main priority of each nation. In todays globalize and so-called liberal market system, the strategic and economic strength of a country cannot be enhanced solely by utilizing local resources. Relationship with different nation state is inevitable for this purpose.

Until now, Nepal's foreign policy is not valued and designed comprehensively. Geographical and economic constraints along with willpower deficiency in the ruling elite are responsible for it. However, resulting international influence can be observed in each political change of Nepal. To understand it, the study of different movements for social transformation in 2007, 2017, 1990 and last people's uprising to overthrow monarchy are more than enough.

Nepal's foreign policy is mainly designed in consent of China and India. US have been formulating its policy towards underdeveloped countries like Nepal through the perspective of local power nation. Therefore, except in military affair, the view of India and US towards Nepal remains the same. In conclusion, we can say that US is brought to Nepal out of military interest. But the interest of China and India in Nepal is both security/military and economic.

Before leaving Nepal after the completion of his tenure as US ambassador, James.F.Moriyarti was asked about the interest of China in Nepal. Responding to this query he had said, 'Tibet, Tibet and Tibet.' From his statement, it is clear that US and China are immensely dragged in Nepal by Tibetan sensitivity. After the end of cold war also, India continue to look its prosperity in the Tibetan mirror. Therefore, the policy of China, India and US towards Nepal is being determined by the presence of Tibet along with its northern frontier.

Tibet shares boarders with countries like Nepal, India, Burma, Bhutan and Pakistan. But Nepal is only country to incalculably accumulate the interest of all power nations out of Tibetans sensitivity. In B.S 2031, exiled Tibetans had lunched 'Khampa Rebel', an armed struggle from Nepal's land Mustang. Soon after late King Birendra returns from China visit, Nepalese army suppressed Khampas. Interest of power nations was explicitly poured in Mustang. But the joint military operation lunched by Nepal and China in the border side had saved South Asia from greater political havoc.

By providing graceful residence to the exiled Tibetan leader, Dalai Lama in Dharmasala of Himanchal Pradesh, India has added Tibetan card under its sleeve to play against China. In the latest birthday ceremony of Dalai Lama, the presence of India's ex-president Dr. Abdul Kalam along with other high-ranking Indian officers exhibits India's covert and overt support to Free Tibet Movement. But India has not allowed exiled Tibetans to lunch (armed) struggle against China from its soil. Bhutan's land is also not being used against China despite of the fact that it's economic, foreign and defense affair are supposedly handled by India. If someone says India's fear of direct confrontation with China is responsible for it, this analysis cannot be considered as multidimensional.

If we see the map of Tibet, Bhutan; India; Pakistan and Burma are linked to the corner part of Tibet. However, Nepal is linked to its central part where different place of Tibet with strategic importance lies. Comparatively Nepal bears greater Tibetan sensitivity.

Mustang is a land beside the Himalayas. The strategy of India and westerners to create instability in Nepal and to export it to Tibet can be achieved from Mustang where there is absence of barrier of Himalaya.

However this is not only significance of Mustang in Tibetan issue. Buffer states like Manchuria, Inner Mongolia, Xingjian and Tibet, which prevents China's core part from land attack, envelop China's mainland. Diplomacy gives equal priority to economic and military prosperity. Therefore, such awesome geographical strength of China is a matter of worry to India, US, EU, Australia, Japan and other counter state of China. India had already beard the attack of China in 1962. Therefore, India’s worry is relatively higher in this issue.

Military analyst have clearly stated that if Tibet become free and allied with India and if India can place its militaries and defense system there, then only India will be a threat to China. This compelling situation is encouraging India to foster Free Tibet Movement to ensure its dominance in the continent.

For the India and westerners to split Tibet from China's mainland, Mustang can be a heaven place. A traditional highway joining Lasha and another autonomous region of China, Xingjian runs near by Mustang. This highway of strategic importance meets Askai Chin, which is also a corridor between Tibet and Xingjian. The strategic importance of Askai Chin was proved in 1962 when China and India fought a bloodshed war to capture it. China and India fought in Arunachal Pradesh and Ladakh. India looses the war. China captured almost all disputed land. However China unilaterally announced ceasefire and calls back its army. But China did not withdraw its army from Aksai Chin despite of strong international pressure. If Aksai Chin is disrupted, China's central administration cannot move in between Tibet and Xingjian. To create this situation, highway that passes nearby Mustang connecting Lasha and Xingjian can be a resulting weapon for anti-Chinese force. Therefore, Nepal is related not only to the stability of Tibet, but also to the stability of Xingjian.

Some analyst says that because of geographical complexity of India's frontier with Tibet and the extreme anti-India sentiments pervasive in the people of those areas, India cannot achieve Free Tibet from its land. In the last conversation with an independent observer of foreign affair Mr. Jivanath Khanal, he said, 'Northeast India and Kashmir are the area in which its people are forcefully compelled to become Indian. India cannot achieve its goal of Free Tibet from this area due to unhelpful behavior of the local people.'

All above stated reasons are attracting power nations in Nepal. If Tibet becomes free or if it gets absolute autonomy, Xingjian also goes out of control of China. Out of it's influence if Hong Kong and Macau which are lately ceded to China forward similar demand, the China which has already knell down in issue of Taiwan will get collapsed. From the perspective of regional power balance, powerless China is threat for the existence of Nepal. Therefore, all the nationalist should unite against the move of leading Madesh based parties who have just initiated campaign against 'One China Policy' of Nepal.

The author is Kathmandu based journalist. Email: sujit_mainali@yahoo.com

Published on : Kashmir Watch, Aug 19